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Gas lasers

Following the invention of the HeNe gas laser, many other gas have been found to amplify light. Most of the gas lasers have a wavelength of 633nm.  The gas laser is low cost but highly coherent. They are extremely common in optical research and educational laboratories. The CO2 lasers can emit many hundreds of watts.

Chemical lasers

Chemical lasers are powered by a chemical reaction. 

Solid state lasers are made by pumping a solid gain medium with a laser diode.  The first working solid state laser was a ruby laser. The solid state refers to a crystal or glass. Then these crystal or glass are named laser crystal or laser glass. Semiconductor lasers (laser diodes) are pumped electrically and are thus not referred to as solid-state lasers. 

Fiber lasers

Solid-state lasers or laser amplifiers where the light is guided due to the total internal reflection in a single mode optical fiber are instead called fiber lasers.

Photonic crystal lasers

Photonic crystal lasers are lasers based on nano-structures.

Semiconductor lasers

Semiconductor lasers are diodes which are electrically pumped.

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